Backyard Poultry

Gardening with Chickens

Starting a Flock : Environment

Patrick Biggs, Ph.D.

Nutritionist, Companion Animal Technical Solutions

Each garden comes with a sense of pride and the joy of sustainability but can be challenging to maintain.

Imagine if you had and all-in-one solution for a natural weed killer, organic fertilizer, natural insecticide and lawn aerator. Many of today’s gardeners have found this solution through backyard chickens.

Gardening with chickens
The combination of chickens and a garden can create a strong backyard ecosystem.  Along with fresh eggs and family fun, raising chickens provides a natural and simple way to add to a backyard’s health and beauty.

Read on to learn how backyard chickens can help your garden flourish.

Organic fertilizer
Chicken manure is an excellent source of fertilizer for both the lawn and garden. Manure from free-range chickens can break down naturally in the yard, providing valuable nutrients for the lawn. The correct balance for free-ranging is about 250 square feet of space per chicken.
To use chicken manure as organic garden fertilizer, consider creating a compost area. This process can reduce the nitrogen levels found in raw manure.
Composting chicken manure is an earth-friendly way to turn organic residues like chicken waste, leaves or bedding into a material that can be used to fertilize the garden. After placing materials into a compost bin, microorganisms break them into natural fertilizer with the help of heat and oxygen.
When maintaining compost, remember to keep it enclosed. Chickens love foraging for scraps in compost areas, and eating too many scraps can dilute the nutrients in the diet.
Learn steps for composting.
Lawn aerator
Another benefit of raising chickens in your garden is soil aeration.
This is because chickens naturally scratch and dig the soil to forage for seeds and bugs. During this process, mulch and compost are spread, soil layers mixed and the ground loosens. Most importantly, oxygen is added to the soil and particle size is reduced.
Because chickens naturally enjoy digging, we encourage protecting delicate and new or young plants as well as those with ripening produce. In addition, if there are certain areas you’d like to keep free of chicken manure or if certain plants should be off-limits, add a fence or chicken wire. A chicken tunnel through the yard is one option. Fencing can also help ward off predators.
Additional tips to protect young plants include: rotating chickens through different areas of the yard, placing stones around plant bases or creating tepee-like structures over young plants.  
Natural weed killer and pest control
In addition to organic fertilizer and lawn aeration, backyard chickens offer organic pest control and act as natural weed killers in your garden and lawn.
The garden and chicken combination works well because chickens love a lot of the things that gardeners do not – like weeds and insects. Chickens forage for seeds and bugs, eat small plants and clean up fallen fruit and green leaves.
Since chickens love many different types of plants, create a diverse plant ecosystem that includes layers of plants. Layering should include these types of plants: cover, lush and shade. Plant layers may include trees, shrubs, perennials, ornamental grasses, annuals, vines, edible plants and ground cover. Well-planned plantings can provide soil stability and help filter rainwater runoff.
Considerations for cover plants are butterfly bushes, which grow fast, provide shade and are not eaten by chickens; and hawthorne, which has edible berries and leaves that chickens tend to avoid.  
When it comes to toxicity, chickens will typically avoid poisonous plants. However, consider removing plants like poison ivy, boxwood, honeysuckle, nightshade, monkshood, oleander, tobacco and yew.
Raising free-range chickens
Consistency is important for chickens allowed to free-range in the garden. Training birds to know specific cues will help them return to the coop at night or during storms and maintain a balanced diet.
Train your backyard chickens to come back to the coop when called. Start with small periods of supervised time in the garden and work up to longer periods. Maintain a routine with how and when you let the chickens free-range.
Most importantly, be sure to provide a complete feed in addition to garden treats.
Plants and insects serve as treats for the flock, but they aren’t a complete diet. To provide all the nutrients chickens require, offer a complete feed like Purina® Organic chicken feed each morning before letting birds out to free-range with access to the feed throughout the day.
Ready for chickens, but not sure about the coop? Read chicken coop tips in this article about Coopitecture™.