Swine

Three Ways to Help Growing Pigs Win Weight Gain Race

Young Animal : Management

Young Animal : Nutrition

Grow/Finish : Grow Finish Production

Stacie Crowder,

Lead Swine Nutritionist, Swine Technical Innovations

How do you get the most pounds from your pigs at market? Are you finishing pigs at higher weights? Or, trying to cut down on days to market? There’s no right or wrong answer. But, one strategy can help no matter the game plan – feeding pigs the right nutrition at the right time, from wean to finish.
 Obstacle course representing the challenges growing pigs face
Optimal weight gain starts by providing the correct nutrients that encourage consistent intake. As pigs transition diets, they experience metabolic changes and other stressors which can cause a drop in feed intake. The right nutrition combined with the proper care at each transition can help pigs maneuver through performance barriers.

1. Start with strong weaned pig feed intake

The first hurdle is the transition from sow’s milk to dry feed. Until now, the piglet has only known the sow as a source of food and only been familiar with the taste and smell of the farrowing pen. Nursery feed ingredients need to include the right taste and smell profiles to set off chemical reactions and drive the pig to start eating.
 
Average feed intake in the first 3-4 days post-weaning is too low to meet the pig’s energy requirements for maintenance and growth.1 You can close the energy gap with complex, highly digestible feed ingredients. These ingredients trigger receptors along the pig’s digestive tract that drive metabolic function. This process helps pigs get the most out of the feed they eat and drives consistent feed intake.

2. Maintain intake in the transition off nursery pig diets

Any diet change can disrupt feed intake for growing pigs. The transition from complex nursery diets to less complex grind-and-mix grower diets is no exception and poses unique challenges. Less complex pig diets provide only moderate support to the gut. This is important to manage because the gut contains about 70% of the pig’s immune system. As gut function declines, the potential risk increases for disease and performance loss.
 
To help pigs transition from nursery diets, use feed technologies that support gut health. For example, medium-chain fatty acids help maintain the integrity of the gut lining, which acts as a barrier to pathogens. A healthy, well-developed gut also has optimal surface area for nutrient absorption so pigs can use more nutrients.

3. Support consistent gain for finishing pigs

Pigs in late finishing are less efficient. In finishing, pigs transition from mostly lean muscle deposition to a mixed lean and fat deposition phase, which is a less efficient metabolic process. Finishing is a prime opportunity to tap into nutritional solutions that support efficiency in pig diets. Additionally, environmental or management aspects such as feeder competition, floor space limitations and feed outage events can exacerbate the decline in efficiency.
 
Proper floor space management can help maximize weight gain during the grow/finish phases. Changes in stocking density correlate to pig performance. The 250-pound pig can experience a 5% decline in average daily gain when floor spaces drops from 8.5 square feet per pig to 7.2 square feet per pig.2 Plan your space accordingly.
 
Feeder management also becomes a bigger challenge when finishing pigs reach market weights. Pigs heavier than 285 pounds might eat an additional pound per day compared to lighter pigs. In a 2,400-head barn, that could add up to an additional ton of feed per day.
 
As a best practice in any production phase, check feeders at least once per day to help avoid feed outages. During late finishing, keeping a close eye on your feed inventory can make the difference between continued gains or performance loss.

Summary

Many factors impact feed intake including stress, health challenges and the feed itself. But, one strategy can help you maintain growing pig performance through to market.
 
You will be more likely to achieve weight goals by keeping pigs eating consistently from start to finish. Encouraging early feed intake, supporting gut health through diet transitions and avoiding feed outages will keep your pigs on pace through finishing.
 
Tap into your local Purina representative’s expertise to learn more.
 

Le Dividich, J. and Seve, B. 2001. Energy requirements of the young pig. In: Varley, M.A. and Wiseman, J. (eds). The weaner pig: nutrition and management. CAB International, United Kingdom, pp. 17-44.
Gonyou HW, Brumm MC, Bush E, Davies P, Deen J, Edwards SA, Fangman T, McGlone -JJ, Meunier-Salaun M, Morrison RB, Spoolder H, Sundberg PL, and Johnson AK. Application of broken line analysis to assess floor space requirements of nursery and grow/finish pigs expressed on an allometric basis. J. Anim. Sci 2005; 83: (submitted for publication).