Swine

Feed for Pig Birthweights

Sow : Sow Production

Gawain Willis, Ph.D.

Research & Development Director, Formulation

When it comes to litters, size matters.

Larger numbers of pigs per litter have a direct correlation with an operation’s total pigs marketed; however, for these pigs to meet their full potential, adequate birthweights are necessary.
 
No matter the genetics, the management or the facilities, birthweight plays a big factor in a pig’s lifetime productivity.
 
Measuring birthweights are especially important as current genetics are helping sows move towards larger litters. Unfortunately this trend is also resulting in a trend toward lower birthweights. In fact, research shows the average birthweight of each pig drops an average of 0.10 pound for each additional pig in the litter.1
 
As the industry evolves and larger litters become more common, producers must pay close attention to birthweights in their farrowing units.
 
Purina Animal Nutrition has evaluated birthweights at the Purina Animal Nutrition Center in Gray Summit, Mo., for several years. Along with Brenda De Rodas, director of swine research with Purina Animal Nutrition, I measured birthweights on 2,456 litters over a 5-year timespan. We found that a 1-pound difference in birthweight (3.1 pounds versus 2.1 pounds) resulted in twice the survival rate from birth to weaning.2 
 
Birthweights played a significant role in pre-weaning mortality rates. Almost all of our pre-weaning mortality occurred in the smaller birthweights. Growth rates, feed efficiency and piglet vitality were also noticeably improved with higher birthweights.
 
Heavier-born pigs were able to get off to a proper start and also reached weaning and market weights quicker; with 2.8 pounds higher weaning weights. When looking at the timeline to finishing, pigs born between 3.1 and 3.5 pounds reached the marketable weight of 270 pounds, 7 days sooner than pigs with birthweights of 1.6 to 2 pounds.2
 
Increased nutrients through gestation and lactation are one major factor required to allow sows to produce these heavier litters. Higher-producing sows require increased nutrients to achieve long-term production or they may fall out of the herd too soon.
 
If the nutritional needs of the sow aren’t met, the potential remains for low birthweights.
 
Failing to feed sows for increased productivity can also lead to rebreeding problems and high sow culling rates. But feeding them properly can result in greater efficiency for both the piglets and the sows. Lifetime productivity of sows and the pigs they produce begins with feeding the sows the quality and quantity of nutrients they require.
 

1Willis, Gawain. “Sow nutrition, health and management.” Purina Animal Nutrition LLC.  Swine VIP Presentation, Sept. 4, 2013. Gray Summit, Mo.
2De Rodas, Brenda and Gawain Willis. “Litter size and birth weight and its impact on long-term production.” Purina Animal Nutrition LLC Research Study, Purina Animal Nutrition Center. 2006-2012.